LA NOTA CIENTÍFICA: Es más fácil «romperle» el corazón a un hombre, según un estudio

Una encuesta muestra que las mujeres sufren más dolor después de una ruptura, pero que son más capaces de recuperarse de ella y que tardan menos tiempo en hacerlo

Es más fácil «romperle» el corazón a un hombre, según un estudio

TELA CHHE

Hace ya varios años que los científicos saben que el cerebro de la mujer y el del hombre funcionan de forma distinta en algunos aspectos. Y también que tanto el amor como el desamor pueden desencadenar una repuesta hormonal que ponga a todo el sistema «patas arriba»: si el enamoramiento puede ser una sinfonía de sensaciones agradables y pensamientos obsesivos, el desamor puede quemar, casi literalmente, como un metal incandescente puesto sobre la piel emocional.

Ahora, un equipo de científicos de la Universidad de Binghamton (Nueva York) y del University College (Londres) han hecho una nueva encuesta para bucear aún más en los efectos del desamor y la han publicado en publicado en la revista «Evolutionary Behavioural Sciences». Después de preguntarle a 5.705 personas acerca de lo que sentían tras la ruptura, concluyeron que las mujeres experimentan más dolor que los hombres, justo después de la separación, pero que luego son capaces de aprender y sobreponerse, mientras que ellos siguen adelante sin recuperarse.

Según ha explicado Craig Morris, investigador de antropología en Binghamton University y líder del estudio, estas diferencias tienen un fundamento biológico y casi económico: «En términos simples, las mujeres evolucionaron para invertir mucho más que un hombre en una relación».

La «economía» del amor

El origen de esta diferencia se remontaría, según su hipótesis, a un pasado remoto: «Un breve encuentro amoroso podría conllevar nueve meses de embarazo seguido de muchos años de lactancia para las mujeres ancestrales, mientras que los hombres podrían “irse” literalmente unos minutos después del encuentro, sin tener inversión biológica alguna».

Esto explicaría que las mujeres sean más exigentes sobre la selección de una pareja de calidad, y por ello más sensibles a su pérdida. Y también explicaría que los hombres sintieran menos dolor al principio, puesto que ellos han evolucionado, según Morris, para competir por la atención de las mujeres.

«El hombre probablemente sienta la pérdida profundamente y durante un período de tiempo muy largo a medida que comprende que debe volver a empezar a competir de nuevo para reemplazar lo que ha perdido». Pero, en ese caso, tienden a reaccionar ante una ruptura de una manera más autodestructiva: «Esto puede durar meses o años. Ellos tienden a “seguir adelante” con frecuencia con otra relación», ha comentado Morris.

Mujeres: más intensas

En cuanto a la forma de vivir las sensaciones, este estudio ha reflejado que las mujeres sufrieron emociones más intensas a la ruptura, y estas fueron sobre todo de ira, ansiedad, depresión y miedo, así como incapacidad para funcionar en el trabajo y en los estudios. Estas también tuvieron su reflejo en respuestas físicas, que ellas experimentaron con más intensidad que los hombres, y que fueron las siguientes: náuseas, incapacidad para comer, ataques de pánico, cambios indeseados en el peso y bajada de la respuesta inmunológica.

Por su parte, los hombres sólo mostraron una mayor intensidad en dos factores de la respuesta emocional: la pérdida general de concentración y la insensibilidad emocional.

La «inevitable» ruptura

Según Morris, la mayoría de nosotros experimenta una media de tres rupturas amorosas antes de alcanzar los 30 años, y al menos una de ellas nos duele lo suficiente como para afectar sustancialmente nuestra calidad de vida durante semanas o meses: «La gente pierde trabajos, los estudiantes no van a clase y algunos individuos pueden desarrollar patrones de comportamiento extremadamente destructivosdespués de una ruptura sentimental», ha explicado Morris. Por ello, ha defendido que entender mejor estas respuestas puede ayudar en el apoyo del dolor tras la ruptura de una relación y para tratar de mitigar sus efectos en individuos de alto riesgo.

ABC DE ESPAÑA

98 Comments

on “LA NOTA CIENTÍFICA: Es más fácil «romperle» el corazón a un hombre, según un estudio
98 Comments on “LA NOTA CIENTÍFICA: Es más fácil «romperle» el corazón a un hombre, según un estudio
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